Notes:

1) The faith in dividing humankind into good and bad people and in the perpetual struggle that ensues between them is deeply rooted in human psychology. It can be traced back to prehistoric times - to the Zoroastrian religion, which some scholars hold that it appeared 18 centuries before Christianity. This religion was dominant in the Persian Empire for over 1,000 years and spread from India to Ethiopia. It is based on faith in two supreme beings that constantly fight each other - Ohrmazd is the creator of the world and all that is good in it, while Ahriman is the source of all evil. An echo of this perception seems to appear in the Dead Sea Scrolls, where the struggle is between Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness. The Bible too mentions Satan, the evil angel, but it is referred to briefly and marginally, for example in the philosophical dialogues in the books of Job and Zechariah (3; 1), and expresses an allegory rather than actual faith.

Close Window

2) Antoine L. Lavoisier (1743-1794), the founder of modern Chemistry, was among the "servants of the aristocracy" who were murdered by the Jacobins.

Close Window

3) Voltaire (1694-1778), the dominant Jacobean thinker-ideologue, expresses his opposition to the Judeo-Christian scriptures: "Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities." The appalling history of the 20th Century shows that the worse horrors are often carried out by those who refuse to believe in Voltaire's "absurdities".

Close Window

4) The Jacobins rise to power that brought about the bloodshed of the "Reign of Terror", may have inspired Nietzsche, when he wrote at the end of the 19th Century: "That's the way Christianity was destroyed as dogma by its own morality, that's the way Christendom as morality must now be destroyed. We stand on the threshold of this event... That great spectacle in one hundred acts, which remains reserved for the next two centuries in Europe, that most fearful, most questionable, and perhaps also most hopeful of all spectacles..." (Friedrich Nietzsche, "Genealogy of Morality")

Close Window

5) In fact it was the wish of the Assembly that Catholicism should cease to be the religion of the State and that liberty of worship should be established. It subsequently declared Protestants eligible to all offices (24 Dec. 1789), restored to their possessions and status as Frenchmen the heirs of Protestant refugees (10 July and 9 Dec. 1790), and took measures in favour of the Jews (28 January, 26 July, and 16 Aug 1790). ("Catholic Encyclopaedia, French Revolution).

Close Window

6) The Freemasons formed in the 18th and 19th Centuries a kind of a Liberal "International", whose members included such heroes of the American Revolution as Washington, St. Martin and Bolivar, as well as Montesquieu, Jabotinsky and almost any worthwhile Liberal. They accepted members from all faiths, who were asked upon joining to swear by the "Great Architect", as a general symbol of the Creator in whom all religions believe. This naturally closed the door to all atheists. They congregated in places called "Temples", which was adorned with two pillars that were named after the pillars of Solomon's Temple.

Close Window

7) The religious foundation appears in all three sources of English, American and Girondin Liberalism - the Bible, the Greek philosophers and Montesquieu.

Aristotle compares the rule of law to the rule of God: "Therefore he who bids the law rule may be deemed to bid God and Reason alone rule, but he who bids man rule adds an element of the beast; for desire is a wild beast, and passion perverts the minds of rulers, even when they are the best of men." (Politics, III, XVI)

Plato claims that humans are incapable of setting laws: "What, then, he said, is still remaining to us of the work of, legislation? Nothing to us, I replied; but to Apollo, the God of Delphi there remains the ordering of the greatest and noblest and chiefest things of all." (Plato, The Republic, IV)

Following the Bible and the Greek philosophers, Montesquieu held: "But the intelligent world is far from being so well governed as the physical. For though the former has also its laws, which of their own nature are invariable, it does not conform to them so exactly as the physical world." (Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, i, I, 1).

And Jefferson too, in the USA Declaration of Independence: " the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God".

And then, the main ideologue of Argentinean Liberalism, Juan Bautista Alberdi: "These facts, the natural elements of the proper constitution, which the Republic already owns, as a result of time and from God, should be matters for learning and phrasing, not of creation." (Alberdi, "Basics and Starting Points to Political Organisation of the Republic of Argentina", 1852, chapter 17).

Close Window

8) Some examples for the Bible's concept of human equality:

A) All the patriarchs of the "chosen people" are described in the Bible as human beings with all the moral weakness of ordinary people. But their human dualism does not prevent God from choosing them as the founders of the nation that was chosen to spread His faith to all people.

B) The glorious King David, the ancestor of the Messiah, the redeemer of his people and of all humankind, is not exactly a pure angel and his sins include even murder. Interestingly, the Biblical story openly relates his ancestry, which is also the origin of the Messiah: On one side he is descended from incest between Lot and his daughters, and his other includes Judah who had a forbidden relationship with Tamar, his daughter in law.

C) The Bible makes sure that the descendants of the nation's leaders would not hold themselves superior to other people. It describes Samuel's sons as takers of bribery (Samuel I, 8, 3) and a grandson of Moses as a pagan priest (in the Book of Judges, 18, 30, the Hebrew text reads "Menashe", but the letter "Nun" is small, and the sages interpret it as an addition to "Moshe" - Moses.)

D) In an episode that inspired the legal philosophy of Classical Liberalism, God comforts Cain by telling him that his actions do not mean that he is worse than those who pretend to be good. He gives Cain a special mark to protect him from harm, blesses him with a loving family, with a son, after whose name the first city was called, and whose offsprings included the inventors of metallurgy, music and more.

(In some translations of the Bible have been introduced, in the text of this affair, sentences that make its sense more childish and canonical. In the New King James Version, Genesis 4:6. we read: "If you do well [will you not be accepted?] And if you do not do well, sin lies at the door..." The sentence in brackets does not appear in the Hebrew version.)

Close Window

9) These terrible numbers do not include the soldiers and civilians who died in actual combat operations. See "Power Kills" in the Encyclopaedia of Genocide by the Institute of Holocaust and Genocide in Jerusalem, (http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/20TH.HTM).

Close Window

10) Mussolini rose to power in 1922 and assumed absolute power in 1924. From 1938, when Italy came under Hitler's influence, due to its isolation by most of the imperial powers after the conquest of Ethiopia, the first anti-Semitic laws were passed in Italy. During World War II, around 8,000 of Italy's 45,000 Jews were deported to German extermination camps. The fascist regimes in Spain, Portugal and Argentina did not adopt racist policies, or divisions between good people and bad ones. Only Portugal comes after Britain in the list of 20th Century genocide champions in the essay "Power Kills" (Encyclopaedia of Genocide), and as it, in committing crimes against humanity in its overseas colonies.

The United States also comes close to join this list of genocide champions (Encyclopaedia of Genocide, Table 3, Pg. 25 - 30), if to the genocide in the Philippines is added the bombardments of civilian population in Germany and Japan. In all, around 2 million people were killed in genocide that democracies committed in the 20th Century.

Close Window