A. Faith In "Good And Bad People" Versus Human Equality.
The Liberal revolutions in England and the USA contained all the psycho-philosophical aspects of the Girondin right wing and luckily for their success and stability, they had no faction similar to the Jacobin Left. The English revolution was led by aristocrats and the clergy. The former used their influence and the latter contributed the ideology. It took place in the 13th Century, i.e. before the Renaissance and the spread of the Classical Greek culture in Europe. Thus, the only source for this Liberal ideology was the Bible, which emphasises the basic duality of human nature, whose soul and psyche combines good and evil, generosity and egotism, love and hate, cowardice and courage. (8)
Most of the founding fathers of the American Revolution were pious Christians. As devout Protestants, they were committed to studying the Bible which, together with the Greek philosophers and Montesquieu, guided them in shaping their constitution and institutions. All three sources have in common a religious and empirical approach that stresses the complexity of human nature, which is fundamentally equal in all human beings.
Following the Jacobin example, the Marxists accurately defined themselves as Left and divided all human beings into "good" and "evil" ones. The "good people" were the proletariat who had no means of production, and the "bad ones" were the bourgeoisie who monopolised the means of production. As a result, while the Jacobins "kindly" murdered around 100,000 people, the Marxists killed in their "war against the bad people" - their "class struggle" - over 100 millions. They turned the 20th Century, "the century of lights" that started with high hopes for the rule of reason, into the most horrible era in human history. (9)
The Nazis too divided humankind into "bad" and "good" people. The Jews were bad and Aryans, particularly the Germans, were good. They added to the 20th Century's balance of slaughter around 20 million victims, 6 millions of them were Jewish. In contrast, the Fascists followed the Girondins in this respect. They defined no enemies and committed no genocide in their own countries except for 8000 Jews sent from Italy to Germany. (10)
B. Atheism versus religiousness.
We mentioned above the Bible-based religiosity of the founders of the American and English Liberal revolutions.
Marxism, the atheist ideology that regarded religion as "opium for the masses", fulfilled in the 20th Century the first of the two horrible centuries that Nietzsche foresaw. (see note 4)
The Nazis were atheists too and specially resented religions and morality of Jewish origin.
The fascists, on the other hand, joined the Right on the issue of religion, and coined the motto: "God, Fatherland, Family and Work."
C. Rationalism versus empiricism.
The thinkers of the English liberalism and the American Revolution, relied on the same empirical sources of the Girondins: the Bible, the Greek philosophers and Montesquieu's scientific research.
In contrast, the Marxists adopted a total faith in their power to create a just society through the exclusive influence of reason. In their arrogance, they did not feel a need to test empirically their "scientific socialism", created by Marx's rational thoughts, before applying it to billions of people with disastrous results.
The fascists too adopted rationalism, believing in the sole power of human reason, without empirical experimentation, to create a better, more just society. This led to the corporativism, the brainchild of Benitto Mussolini, a former Marxist ideologue.
Nazism has fulfilled Nietzsche's hope, that after the Jacobean and Marxist Judeo-Christian morality destroys religion, this irrational system of protecting the weak, which contradicts the needs of Darwinian evolution, will also destroy itself. According to Nietzsche, this will bring about two centuries of horror, but also full of hope that the morality which natural selection rationally dictates - the rule of the strong and the elimination of the weak - will lead humankind to its correct course of development. (see note 4)
Out of the three psycho-philosophical differences that separated Jacobins and Girondins, despite their common ideology - good & bad versus equals, atheists versus religious, and rationalists versus empiricists - which we may characterise as arrogant versus humble positions, we find that:
1. The three arrogant positions are common to Jacobins, Marxists and Nazis.
2. The three humble positions are common to Girondins and the founders of the English and American Liberal revolutions.
3. Fascism has only rationalism in common with the Jacobins, but holds like the Girondins that humans are equal and respects religion.
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